Modern Irish people are largely descended from two main groups: Gaelic Irish, who are descended from the Celts who arrived in Ireland around 500 BC, and Norman Irish, who are descended from the Norman invasions of 1169. The two groups have intermingled over the centuries, leading to a mix of genetic markers and cultural influences. The most common genetic marker in modern Irish people is R1b, which is associated with both Gaelic and Norman ancestry. Additionally, there is evidence of Viking, English, and Scottish influence in modern Irish people. Overall, modern Irish people are a diverse mix of many different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
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